Thanks to the data from the Gaia mission of the European Space Agency (ESA, for its acronym in English), scientists have been able to take a look at the past and the future of the Sun. This gives a clue to when will be the end of the earthsince the death of the sun it will wipe out the inner planets when it becomes a red giant star. When will that be?
The Sun, like all stars, will one day die, and when it does so will the Earth. Although the star’s mass changes relatively little during its lifetime, the star’s temperature and size vary greatly as it ages. These changes are driven by the type of reactions of nuclear fusion that take place inside the star.
With an age of around 4.57 billion years, our Sun is currently in its comfortable middle age, fusing hydrogen into helium and generally being quite stable. But this will not be so forever. As the hydrogen fuel runs out in its core and changes in the fusion process begin, the Sun will swell until it “explodes” into a red giant star.lowering its surface temperature in the process.
The sun will destroy the earth
Exactly how this happens depends on the amount of mass a star contains and its chemical composition. That is precisely the mission of Gaia, to search for stars with the same mass and chemical composition as the Sun, to discover how it will evolve and when will be the end of our planet. It is paradoxical that the Sun is our closest and most studied star, but their proximity and brightness make it necessary to identify similar stars in order to make safe observations.
Our Sun will reach a maximum temperature approximately 8 billion yearsthen it will cool down and increase in size, becoming a red giant star around 10 to 11 billion years old. When it does, it will use up all of its hydrogen and “explode” wiping out Mercury, Venus and Earththe inner planets of the single system.
The Sun will reach the end of its life after this phase, when eventually become a dim white dwarf.